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Gladys Ko

Associate Professor

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Phone: (979) 845-1797

Mailstop: 4458

Department: VIBS

Photo of Ko, Gladys

Research Keywords

Diabetic retinopathy, novel bioactive peptides, circadian regulation of retinal physiology, signal tranduction in ion channel regulation

Education

  • Ph.D. Neuroscience in Biomedical Sciences, Kent State U. affiliated w/ N.E. Ohio U Col. Med. 1996
  • M.S. Anatomical Sciences, National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taiwan 1991
  • B.S. Biology, National Chang-Kung University, Taiwan 1989

Research

  • Cell Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Neuroscience

Interdisciplinary Activities

  • Neuroscience
  • Toxicology

Scholarly Interests

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population with a projected prevalence of more than 11 million patients by 2030 in the US. Once the disease starts, it cannot be stopped simply by controlling the blood glucose (glycemic) levels strictly through diets and exercise. While DR is a disorder with two major problems, the vascular complications and the neural retina degeneration, the current treatments mainly target the vascular complications without treating the neural retina. The first-line gold standard treatments for DR is regular injections with anti-VEGF agents into the eyes. However, roughly 30% of DR patients do not respond well to these treatments. Often these non-responders are identified months after the treatments have started. Therefore, discovering new ways to treat or prevent DR are a major health issue, which is also the research focus in our laboratory. Interestingly, diabetic patients with retinitis pigmentosa, a congenital blindness with degenerated retinal photoreceptors, rarely develop DR. This suggests that the neural retina, especially the photoreceptors contribute to the development of DR. Our laboratory has been investigated the molecular mechanisms that regulate photoreceptor physiology over 13 years. More specifically, we have been investigating how metabolism and energy expenditure of photoreceptors are regulated throughout the course of 24 hours. We employ different techniques, including electroretinogram (ERG) recordings, fundus angiography, electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings, various biochemical and molecular assays, and imaging at cellular and tissue levels, and now focus on how early diabetic conditions trigger changes in photoreceptors that might lead to DR. In addition, we have recently discovered a new bioactive peptide, peptide Lv. This peptide not only regulates photoreceptor physiology, it also modulates cardiovascular functions. We now further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of peptide Lv's bioactivities, as well as its other unknown function.

Publications

Retinoschisin Facilitates the Function of L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.
Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. 2017 11:232.
Circadian regulation of ion channels in photoreceptors.
Gladys Y.-P. Ko
Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Elsevier/Academic Press, Oxford, UK; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128093245013274. 2017 ISBN 9780128093245.
The Effects of Metformin on Obesity-Induced Dysfunctional Retinas.
Andy Jeesu Kim, Janet Ya-An Chang, Liheng Shi, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Michael Lee Ko, Gladys Yi-Ping Ko
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2017 58(1):106-118.
Deletion of miR-150 Exacerbates Retinal Vascular Overgrowth in High-Fat-Diet Induced Diabetic Mice.
Liheng Shi, Andy Jeesu Kim, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Janet Ya-An Chang, Wei Ying, Michael L Ko, Beiyan Zhou, Gladys Yi-Ping Ko
PloS one. 2016 11(6):e0157543.
A new role for AMP-activated protein kinase in the circadian regulation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in late-stage embryonic retinal photoreceptors.
Cathy C Y Huang, Liheng Shi, Chia-Hung Lin, Andy Jeesu Kim, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of neurochemistry. 2015 135(4):727-41.
High-Fat Diet-Induced Retinal Dysfunction.
Richard Cheng-An Chang, Liheng Shi, Cathy Chia-Yu Huang, Andy Jeesu Kim, Michael L Ko, Beiyan Zhou, Gladys Y-P Ko
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2015 56(4):2367-80.
High-Fat Diet-Induced Retinal Dysfunction.
Chang RC, Shi L, Huang CC, Kim AJ, Ko ML, Zhou B, Ko GY
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 56(4):2367-80.
Peptide Lv augments L-type voltage-gated calcium channels through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling.
Liheng Shi, Soyoung Ko, Michael L Ko, Andy Jeesu Kim, Gladys Y-P Ko
Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2015 1853(5):1154-64.
Chicken embryos as a potential new model for early onset type I diabetes.
Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Cathy Chia-Yu Huang, So-Young Park, Min-Pyo Hong, Chaodong Wu, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of diabetes research. 2014 2014:354094.
Circadian phase-dependent effect of nitric oxide on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in avian cone photoreceptors.
Michael L Ko, Liheng Shi, Cathy C-Y Huang, Kirill Grushin, So-Young Park, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of neurochemistry. 2013 127(3):314-28.
A new functional role for mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the circadian regulation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in avian cone photoreceptors.
Cathy Chia-Yu Huang, Michael Lee Ko, Gladys Yi-Ping Ko
PloS one. 2013 8(8):e73315.
Identification of Peptide lv, a novel putative neuropeptide that regulates the expression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in photoreceptors.
Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Louise C Abbott, Gladys Y-P Ko
PloS one. 2012 7(8):e43091.
Calcineurin serves in the circadian output pathway to regulate the daily rhythm of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the retina.
Cathy Chia-Yu Huang, Michael L Ko, Darya I Vernikovskaya, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2012 113(3):911-22.
Cardiac-specific mutation of Clock alters the quantitative measurements of physical activities without changing behavioral circadian rhythms.
Michael L Ko, Liheng Shi, Ju-Yun Tsai, Martin E Young, Nichole Neuendorff, David J Earnest, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of biological rhythms. 2011 26(5):412-22.
Circadian regulation of ion channels in photoreceptors.
Gladys Y.-P. Ko, Kuihuan Jian, Liheng Shi, Michael L. Ko
The Retina and its Disorders. Edited by Joseph Besharse and Dean Bok. Elsevier/Academic Press, Oxford, UK. 2011 :118-123.
Circadian regulation of ion channels in photoreceptors.
Gladys Y.-P. Ko, Kuihuan Jian, Liheng Shi, Michael L. Ko
Encyclopedia of the Eye, Volume 1 (Four Volumes Set). Editor-in-Chief: Darlene Dartt. Section Editor: Barbara Battelle, Section Co-Editor: Joseph Besharse. Elsevier/Academic Press, Oxford, UK. 2010 :296-301.
Circadian profiles in the embryonic chick heart: L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and signaling pathways.
Michael L Ko, Liheng Shi, Kirill Grushin, Fikru Nigussie, Gladys Y-P Ko
Chronobiology international. 2010 27(9-10):1673-96.
Inhibitory effect of somatostatin-14 on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in cultured cone photoreceptors requires intracellular calcium.
Kuihuan Jian, Rola Barhoumi, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of neurophysiology. 2009 102(3):1801-10.
Rhythmic expression of microRNA-26a regulates the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1C subunit in chicken cone photoreceptors.
Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
The Journal of biological chemistry. 2009 284(38):25791-803.
Circadian regulation of ion channels and their functions.
Gladys Y-P Ko, Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko
Journal of neurochemistry. 2009 110(4):1150-69.
Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-Akt signaling serves as a circadian output in the retina.
Michael L Ko, Kuihuan Jian, Liheng Shi, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of neurochemistry. 2009 108(6):1607-20.
Retinoschisin, a new binding partner for L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the retina.
Liheng Shi, Kuihuan Jian, Michael L Ko, Dorothy Trump, Gladys Y-P Ko
The Journal of biological chemistry. 2009 284(6):3966-75.
Circadian controls outweigh acute illumination effects on the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the retina.
Michael L Ko, Liheng Shi, Gladys Y-P Ko
Neuroscience letters. 2009 451(1):74-8.
Circadian regulation of retinoschisin in the chick retina.
Michael L Ko, Yilin Liu, Liheng Shi, Dorothy Trump, Gladys Y-P Ko
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2008 49(4):1615-21.
Somatostatin peptides produce multiple effects on gating properties of native cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channels that depend on circadian phase and previous illumination.
Shih-Kuo Chen, Gladys Y-P Ko, Stuart E Dryer
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2007 27(45):12168-75.
The expression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in retinal photoreceptors is under circadian control.
Michael L Ko, Yilin Liu, Stuart E Dryer, Gladys Y-P Ko
Journal of neurochemistry. 2007 103(2):784-92.
Tyrosine phosphorylation of cGMP-gated ion channels is under circadian control in chick retina photoreceptors.
Chae KS, Ko GY, Dryer SE
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 48(2):901-6.
Circadian and cAMP-dependent modulation of retinal cone cGMP-gated channels does not require protein synthesis or calcium influx through L-type channels.
Ko GY, Ko M, Dryer SE
Brain Res. 2004 1021(2):277-80.
Circadian regulation of cGMP-gated channels of vertebrate cone photoreceptors: role of cAMP and Ras.
Gladys Y-P Ko, Michael L Ko, Stuart E Dryer
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2004 24(6):1296-304.
Circadian phase-dependent modulation of cGMP-gated channels of cone photoreceptors by dopamine and D2 agonist.
Gladys Y-P Ko, Michael L Ko, Stuart E Dryer
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2003 23(8):3145-53.
Circadian regulation of cGMP-gated cationic channels of chick retinal cones. Erk MAP Kinase and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.
G Y Ko, M L Ko, S E Dryer
Neuron. 2001 29(1):255-66.
Developmental expression of retinal cone cGMP-gated channels: evidence for rapid turnover and trophic regulation.
G Y Ko, M L Ko, S E Dryer
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001 21(1):221-9.
Nitric oxide acts as a postsynaptic signaling molecule in calcium/calmodulin-induced synaptic potentiation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
G Y Ko, P T Kelly
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1999 19(16):6784-94.
Cellular and molecular bases of memory: synaptic and neuronal plasticity.
J H Wang, G Y Ko, P T Kelly
Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society. 1997 14(4):264-93.
The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on NMDA-EPSP, AMPA-EPSP, and GABA-IPSP in the rat hippocampus
Gladys Y.-P. Ko, Laurie M. Brown-Croyts, and Timothy J. Teyler
Brain Res. Bull. . 1997 42:297-302.
The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat hippocampus.
Gladys Y.-P. Lee, Laurie M. Brown-Croyts, and Timothy J. Teyler
Brain Res. Bull. . 1996 39:39-42.
Anti-epileptics inhibit cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked [3H]-norepinephrine efflux.
Laurie M. Brown, Gladys Y.-P. Lee, and Timothy J. Teyler
Eur. J. Pharm.. 1994 254:307-309.
The multideterminant role of calcium in synaptic plasticity.
Teyler, T.J.; Cavus, I.; Coussens, C.; DiScenna, P.; Grover, L.; Lee, Y.-P. and Little, Z.
Hippocampus. 1994 4:623-634.
Advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity.
Teyler, T.J.; Cavus, I.; Coussens, C.; DiScenna, P.; Grover, L.; Lee, Y.-P. and Little, Z.
J. Neurosci. Meth. . 1994 :A8.
Advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity.
Teyler, T.J.; Cavus, I.; Coussens, C.; DiScenna, P.; Grover, L.; Lee, Y.-P. and Little, Z.
Brain Slices in Basic and Clinical Research, A. Schurr and B. Rigor eds., CRC press, Boca Raton, FL. 1994 :1-25.
Autoradiographic study of the retinal projections on the Chinese Pangolin, Manis pentadactyla.
Gladys Y.-P. Lee, S.-T. Chen, and C.-L. Shen
Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 1991 37:104-110.


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